Fatores perinatais associados ao Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo: Revisão integrativa da literatura

Fernanda Alves Maia, Maria Tereza Carvalho Almeida, Michelle Beatriz Santos Silveira, Nathália Ferreira Nunes, Ana Clara Fernandes Marques, Erick Dias Pereira, Isabela de Oliveira Nunes Costa, Maria Letícia Vieira, Victor Bruno da Silva, Stéffany Lara Nunes Oliveira, Desirée Sant’Ana Haikal, Marise Fagundes Silveira

Resumo

Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão integrativa de literatura para identificar os fatores perinatais associados ao TEA. Métodos: Uma pesquisa na PubMed, Medline e Lilacs foi realizada, utilizando como descritores: transtorno autista, gravidez, pré-natal, perinatal, pós-natal e neonatal. Foram incluídos estudos epidemiológicos/observacionais publicados em inglês/espanhol/português entre 2000-2014. Resultados: Identificaram-se 619 publicações e após a triagem dos critérios elegíveis, 17 artigos foram incluídos. Os principais fatores de risco associados ao TEA foram: sexo masculino (proporção de 4:1); mãe fumante passiva ou ativa; primogênito; doenças psiquiátricas e estado emocional materno; prematuridade; mulheres sem trabalho de parto ou parto prolongado; parto cesárea; Apgar menor que sete no 1º ou 5º minuto; idade gestacional <37 semanas de gestação e nascer com peso <2500 gramas. Conclusão: Ainda não há evidência suficiente para afirmar que os fatores perinatais listados sejam considerados agentes etiológicos, embora a exposição a esses fatores possa aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento do TEA.

Palavras-chave

Transtorno autístico; gravidez; assistência perinatal; fatores de risco

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